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EU KLEMS Linked Data 2008 Release

The data on this page are additional industry level indicators, mainly aggregated from firm level data. For a short overview of the methodology and results of the Linked Data 2008 release, please refer to: Mary O'Mahony, EU KLEMS Linked Data, Sources and Methods, University of Birmingham, November 2008.

Sources and methods:

Downloadable country files in Excel:

The data below is divided into four parts. The data vary in their country, time period and industry coverage.


In economics, the purposeful search for innovations has become a prominent feature of growth theories. Innovation is hard to measure, in particular because the output of innovation processes has a strongly intangible nature. Concerning output indicators, patent statistics are often used, in particular in manufacturing. The Patents data listed below is presented in two formats. The basic file presents the 25 countries for the period 1970-1999 with the highest level of detail, whereas the industry classification of the additional file corresponds to the level of aggregation applied in the additional files of the EU KLEMS dataset.

Country Basic Patent file Additional Patent file
All available countries Patents Patents add


Innovation indicators can be classified according to their focus on either inputs or outputs. With regard to input indicators, Research & Development (R&D) statistics are still the most widely employed. R&D indicators like those described here allow for analyses investigating to what extent the differences in productivity growth rates across countries as evident from the core EU KLEMS data can be explained by differences in investments in innovative activity. Like the productivity data, our R&D data have been compiled at the industry level. The data covers R&D stocks for 19 countries for the period 1980-2003.

Country R&D files
All available countries R&D Stock

Distributed Microdata Indicators

The firm level projects financed by the OECD, the World Bank, and various grants of EU member countries, have generated micro-aggregated data that form the basis of the datasets delivered to the EU-KLEMS project. The work made use of a common analytical framework and was conducted by active experts in each of the countries. The framework involves the harmonization, to the extent possible, of key concepts (e.g. entry, exit, or the definition of the unit of measurement) as well as the definition of common methodologies for studying firm-level data. The data covers the 12 countries listed below. The time coverage of DMD data vary by country but mostly cover the 1980s and the early to mid 1990s but some extend as far forward as 2004.

Country DMD files
Estonia EST_Micro
Finland FIN_Micro
France FRA_Micro
Germany GER_Micro
Hungary HUN_Micro
Italy ITA_Micro
Latvia LVA_Micro
Netherlands NLD_Micro
Slovenia SVN_Micro
Sweden SWE_Micro
United Kingdom UK_Micro
United States US2_Micro

Company Accounts

Industry level indicators of market structure (concentration and average age of firms) were derived by aggregating information from company accounts using the Amadeus database. This database contains information on about 120,000 companies in the EU-25, and so the primary advantage of using this resource is its extensive country coverage. The number of firms varies considerably by country with the highest coverage in the UK followed by Germany, France, Italy and Spain. The data covers the period from 1997 to 2006 for the countries listed below.

Country Company Accounts
Austria AUT_company_accounts
Belgium BEL_company_accounts
Czech Republic CZE_company_accounts
Denmark DNK_company_accounts
Spain ESP_company_accounts
Estonia EST_company_accounts
Finland FIN_company_accounts
France FRA_company_accounts
Germany GER_company_accounts
Greece GRC_company_accounts
Hungary HUN_company_accounts
Ireland IRL_company_accounts
Italy ITA_company_accounts
Lithuania LTU_company_accounts
Latvia LTV_company_accounts
Netherlands NLD_company_accounts
Poland POL_company_accounts
Portugal PRT_company_accounts
Slovak Republic SVK_company_accounts
Sweden SWE_company_accounts
United Kingdom UK_company_accounts

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This project is funded by the European Commission, Research Directorate General as part of the 6th Framework Programme, Priority 8, "Policy Support and Anticipating Scientific and Technological Needs".

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Last changed on: October 30 2008